Micere Githae Mugo is undoubtedly one of Africa’s foremost poets of distinction. Her iconic status as an activist, scholar and creative artist spans the colonial and post-independence era of Kenya’s political history. My tribute will highlight the ways in which Mugo’s collection, My Mother’s Poem and Other Songs (1994) interrogates important issues of women’s empowerment, Pan-Africanism, and social justice that resonate with contemporary challenges to progress in Kenya, East Africa, the continent and beyond to the diaspora.
Micere Mugo’s poetry resonates her commitment to political activism, support for social justice and racial solidarity within a feminist framework. As a literary treasure of Kenya, her poetic expression foregrounds feminist expression as a lens to examine larger issues of the political and socio-cultural landscape of Kenya, the Black world, and the global arena.
In the same way as My Mother’s Poem and Other Songs, her earlier poetry Daughter of My People, Sing! (1976) is described as a defining work infused with feminist elements, hope, and the promise of development in post-independence Africa. My Mother’s Poem and Other Songs convey these tenets to vividly extol the virtues of Africana Womanism that engage pressing issues in the past and present. Poems such as “To Be a Feminist”, “The Woman’s Poem”, “Mother Afrika’s Matriots”, and “The Pan-Afrikanist Poem”, articulate striking feminist expression as well as political themes. These poems are the focus of this tribute that explores the value of women’s identity, Pan-Africanism, and social and political transformation for African and African diaspora people.
Micere Mugo was born in Baricho Kenya in 1942 and her nurturing family background and early education planted the seeds of her strength, resilience, and political activism in her career. She grew up during the colonial era, guided by progressive and politically active parents. As a child, she witnessed the inhumanity of the British colonial government first-hand which no doubt left indelible awareness of political oppression and violence against her people.
These early encounters with inequality and racial barriers were the fertile soil of Mugo’s growth and development as an educator, outspoken activist, and feminist icon throughout her career.
Among her many awards and honours is the Distinguished Africanist Scholar Award, 2007, and the Human Rights Award, 2004. The Ford Foundation honoured her for research on African orature and human rights in 1987-90 and in 1992, she was given the Rockefeller Foundation Award for publication and writing. In 2002, she was recognised as one of the top 100 people to influence Kenya during the 20th century. Her activism in Kenya was not well received by the regime of Daniel Arap Moi, then president of Kenya. After experiencing harassment by the government, Micere Mugo departed her homeland as an exile in 1982 which resulted in the loss of her citizenship. Eventually she became a citizen of Zimbabwe where she lived and taught for many years. She migrated to America and became a professor, and chair of the Department of African American Studies at Syracuse University in New York.
Published in the late 20th century, Micere Mugo’s poetry (re)positions women’s identity in ways that express a feminist vision of social justice. The form and structure of her poems convey complexity that invokes the narrative features of a novella. In Mugo’s poetry, conflict and realism mirror the experiences of African women throughout history from post-independence to the global age. Mugo’s poetic vision has woven a tapestry of women’s historiography that resonates contemporary challenges in the lives of Africana women. One of the most important poems from My Mother’s Poem and Other Songs is “To Be a Feminist Is”. In no uncertain terms, the poem eloquently establishes the poet’s (re)imagining of the controversial tenets and ideological debates around feminism.
Micere Mugo’s ideas about feminism were timely in the 20th century and continue to resonate in the global age. “To Be a Feminist” is essentially a form or ‘writing back’ to women from the global north as well as to patriarchy and foreign domination.
The poem asserts that:
To be a Feminist is to embrace my womanness
The womanness of
all my mothers
all my sisters
to hug the female principle
and the metaphors of life
that decorate my being.
These lines represent a celebration of the essence of femininity through her female lineage to position the centrality of her womanhood. The poet expresses the collective identity of women from which she draws her life force. The ‘metaphors of life’ invoke the female principle and for Mugo, these innate qualities of the female principle emphasise that to be a feminist is to “water my fertility…”, to “woman my womb…” “It is to converse with my soul”.
Micere Mugo’s ideas about feminism were timely in the 20th century and continue to resonate in the global age.
Mugo embraces these ‘metaphors of life’ as an affirmation of her femaleness. When Mugo “ululates that my gender is female” she turns patriarchy on its head to reinstate women’s essence in society. The celebration of her gender usurps the subordination of women and in a sweeping gesture, Mugo unseats ‘colonial hangovers’ that mark the deteriorated status of women under the colonial onslaught.
Mugo’s anger and astute political observations that indict European exploitation are conveyed through vivid imagery and personification. To illustrate, she uses terms such as ‘cannibal named capitalism’ and ‘the ogre named imperialism’. The rape of Africa during the colonial era sparks her bitter tone, and with reference to the Atlantic slave trade driven by the British, Portuguese, Dutch and French, she states that to be a feminist is:
to unhood racism
to decry Zionism
to detonate apartheid
to obliterate “tribalism”
to necklace homophobia
to drown fanaticism
to strangulate classism
to fumigate ethnic cleansing.
The poet names diverse forms of oppression and does not spare the inhumanity meted out in Africa’s wars of ethnic conflict as well as dangerous and unproductive behaviours like homophobia and religious fanaticism or the pentecostalism that is presently sweeping the African continent. Moreover, Ecofeminist elements in the poem connect women to the earth and to harmony with nature as an expression of the female principle. Reverence for nature as part of the female principle is echoed in the spiritual traditions of African people throughout the continent.
Songs of Resistance
“The Woman’s Poem” mirrors the synergy of “To Be a Feminist” as it journeys through women’s emerging agency for social and political transformation. The poem codifies African women’s identity and the capacity to mobilise and energise the struggle for liberation from all forms of oppression and inequality. Perhaps the most compelling element of “The Woman’s Poem” is the refrain expressed in Mugo’s Gikuyu language, ‘Ta Imaaaagini!’ that translates to “Just imagine!” The act of couching this idea in Gikuyu solidifies Kenyan identity as a launchpad of feminist solidarity and sisterhood. The poem takes the reader into the realm of potential for a different future for Africa through the solidarity of women.
The imagery in the poem conveys women united as “one mighty waterfall of sweeping human mass waters…” and “a global family of women combatants” who will form “one non-ending feminist drama”. These images suggest a panoramic vista of female resistance infused with agency to transform society. The repeated refrain, ‘Just imagine’ is a rallying cry for Pan-African activism that cannot be undone against the forces of racism, patriarchy, and classism. These issues in society represent the ills that plague the African post-independence landscape and form the overarching focus of her poetry. “The Woman’s Poem” extends the idea of “exploding silences” with reference to the ways in which women are ‘silenced’ by patriarchy and that the poem denounces:
pestle and mortared
and grind us!”
Micere Mugo is a fearless writer who leads the mandate for women to speak for themselves. Mugo’s poem is a charge to women to mobilise their strength to throw off the shackles of subordinate status in society. She refers to women’s labour as ‘chains’ but asks women to break free through their own agency.
“Mother Afrika’s Matriots” conveys a Pan-Africanist ethos that links to Africana Feminism, sisterhood, human rights, and liberation struggles of African people.
Like “The Woman’s Poem” and “To Be a Feminist”, “the poem vividly renders “herstory” in ways that celebrate women’s power. She animates ’herstory’ as a means to (re)envision African womanhood in the service Pan-African unity in Africa and the Black World. Central to unfolding “herstory” is the honour, praise, and veneration of Mother Afrika’s Matriots to invoke their contributions to African civilisation and to inspire a sustainable future for Africa. These ideas arouse the flavour of a ‘praise poem’ or ‘praise song’ that the poet calls “immortal verse”.
Beginning in antiquity, ‘herstory’ unfolds the richness of Africa’s past through a feminist lens of empowered womanhood. Throughout the poem, the refrain, ‘Mother Africa’s Matriots’ punctuates the flow of celebratory images of African women. The poem narrates the legendary accomplishments of Nefertiti, Hatshepsut, and Cleopatra, to memorialise them in the annals of women’s history. Further, Pan-Africanism infuses the tone of the poem because the historical figures are from diverse communities in the Black world to form a broad spectrum of female power through spatio-temporal framing. To illustrate, the narrator moves from the ancient world to the colonial period to include Queen Nzinga as an “abolitionist supreme who etched liberation anthems across Angola’s valleys and hills”. The Atlantic slave trade and the creation of the African diaspora created the anti-slavery heroine Harriet Tubman as a “guerilla of the underground railroad”. Notable among women of this dark period in America’s history are Sojourner Truth, Mary Prince, and Mary Seacole, described in larger-than-life terms as females who inspire women to “pilot their herstory to newly aimed heights” or, in the case of Sojourner, as an “earthquake that shook pillars of racism and sexism”. During the 19th century, dynamic women such as Mary Church Terrell and Ida B. Wells carved paths of activism in pursuit of women’s rights and Black liberation from racial oppression.
The act of couching this idea in Gikuyu solidifies Kenyan identity as a launchpad of feminist solidarity and sisterhood.
The diaspora is well represented through a Pan-African pantheon throughout enslavement, the suffrage movement and the civil rights era during the 1950s as well as in the militant activism of women in the Black Panther Party during the mid-to late 1960s. The Civil Rights Movement gave rise to Black Power in the mid-1960s that parallels the agitation for African independence to include figures such as Queen Mother Yaa Asantewa and Nayakasikana Mbuya Nehanda and “the last field Marshall of the Mau Mau, Muthoni wa Kirima”. Organised resistance to colonial domination celebrates Afrikan Matriots as women who participated in the Aba Women’s War of 1921, documented as the largest anti-colonial protest movement in West African history.
Mugo passionately describes “Afrikana chimurenga women” of:
Haiti and Cuba
Algeria and Kenya
Mozambique and Angola
Guinea Bissau and Namibia
Zimbabwe and South Africa
They will explode imperialist history’s incarcerating myths. The myths are the Eurocentric discourses and narratives that valorise the colonising, imperialist mission in Africa. These distorted historical narratives form the legacy of domination that sustains mental chains/slavery as part of the social, economic, and political exploitation of African people globally.
In honouring ‘Afrika’s Matriots’, the tone of the poem changes to firmly assert the continuity of women’s collective resistance and ’womanist struggles’. Looking towards the future, the poem voices women’s agency to “surmount an attack on the unfinished business of historical stocktaking”. ‘Herstory’ is thus an ongoing effort to (re)frame women’s contribution to the liberation of the Black race.
In (re)framing ‘herstory’, Mugo reclaims Pan-African sensibilities from the male-centred historiography of the not-too-distant past. Afrika’s Matriot’s ends on a note of confidence that future generations will celebrate the dynamism of Africana women. The narrator is assured of the inspirational and nourishing energies of women that span the past and present and assumes these sentiments will inform future struggles of African women.
The “Pan-Afrikanist Poem” opens with an epigraph that dedicates the piece to “all those who struggle(d) to establish Afrikana Studies on campuses of cultural domination”. The imagery invokes the unearthing of “our buried Pan-Afrikanist heritage”. She indicts the “colonial violation and imperialist infestation…. a piece of land ambushed by western civilisation”. These images represent the complexity of Africa’s occluded history, distorted by colonial miseducation, cultural imperialism, historical erasure, massive ignorance and historical amnesia in the African diaspora.
The speaker deplores the epistemological structures of Eurocentric knowledge that celebrate western civilisation while denying the contributions of Africa to the world dating from antiquity. The dispersal of African people from the continent as a result of forced migration during the Atlantic slave trade exacerbated the disruptions of knowledge systems that lie at the core of African cultural identity. Pan-Afrikanism is the key to suturing Afrika’s scattered and disparate masses throughout the globe. “The Pan-Africanist Poem” poignantly resonates the powerful Ghanaian symbol of Sankofa that conveys the need to recover the past as a foundation for the future. The centuries-old wisdom of this concept is important throughout the African continent as well as in the far-flung diaspora. The narrator of the poem states she “poetized for you and for myself… I poetized for him, and for her… I poetized for our children and for all of us.” The divisive nature of Africa’s history is perhaps the greatest enemy to a sustainable future.
Mugo’s poem is a charge to women to mobilise their strength to throw off the shackles of subordinate status in society.
Micere Mugo’s poetry foregrounds the female gaze on a range of woman-centred issues that span Africa and the diaspora. Her vision is sharp, clear, and penetrating as she displays her commitment to gender equality, progress, and social justice. Her poems represent African women’s literary traditions that evolved from orature to literary expression. Mugo’s poetic vision in My Mother’s Poem and Other Songs narrates tropes of feminism with a Pan-Africanist flavour. While recounting ‘herstory’ in poems such as “To Be a Feminist”, Mugo ‘names’ herself, celebrates her femininity and the innate power of her womanhood to transform society. “To Be a Feminist Is” translates to ‘unsilencing’ women’s voices as well as to literally ‘explode silences’, which is a recurring metaphor and one of the most important messages in the poem.
In “The Woman’s Poem”, Mugo asserts that all women have the power to change their destinies and dismantle forces of oppression. At the core of her message is the belief in women’s capacity for transformation of themselves as well as society. She conflates patriarchy with political domination and imperialism. For Mugo, women’s resistance can never be passive but rather aggressive, bold, and relentless. “Mother Africa’s Matriots” is yet another form of ‘herstory’ as a praise song to memorialise dynamic and fearless Africana women in all periods of history. The celebratory tone elevates the heroines of the Black race to their rightful place as “Matriots” to form a composite of Pan-Afrikan feminist synergy on behalf of liberation struggles. Africana women have made diverse and meaningful contributions to society from antiquity through the global age. The political overtones in the poem are strong as a reflection women’s heightened consciousness and commitment to freedom struggles.
Finally, “The Pan-Africanist Poem” highlights the importance of historical continuity and reclaiming (Afrikan) self-knowledge as the inspiration for Mugo to commemorate “those who struggled to establish Afrikana Studies”. The essence of this poem underscores the inherent wisdom of “knowing where you came from in order to know where you are going”. Taken together, the poems examined speak to the creative artistry of Micere Mugo to fashion a dynamic vision of female empowerment, political engagement, self-love and knowledge. Her poems express the hope for a sound future for African and African-descended peoples, founded upon Pan-African ideals of sisterhood and brotherhood. Her poems are part of an African literary tradition in which women speak for themselves as well as speak to power in the interest of equality and social justice. Her talent, outspoken activism and lifetime of outstanding achievements are a testimony of her commitment to uplifting Africa through the full participation of empowered African women. Women ‘breaking silence’ is the first step in Africa’s renewal and the quest for dignity and gender equity in a new world order.
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Remembering Shujaa Mĩcere Gĩthae Mũgo, My Sister in the Struggle
As Kenya celebrates Mashujaa Day, Dr Achola Pala Okeyo recalls a friendship and a sistahood built on a shared heritage of parental struggle against colonialism and oppression.
I start my personal testimony by thanking Mĩcere’s family for kelo yuak dala (bringing home the mourning as we say in Dholuo). When we lose a loved one in a faraway land, bringing home the mourning allows us to grieve together and begin the healing process. So after such a momentous loss, I am grateful to Mĩcere for coming back to us as we unite in this community of family and friends to grieve together and celebrate her life.
My heart goes out to her daughter Mumbi. I always remember what my only daughter, Agunda Okeyo, once told me when I was about to go on an extended trip leaving her behind in New York City where we had lived together for a long time: “Mama you are the ground beneath my feet. When you leave, I have no place to stand.” Then she paused. And with tears streaming down her cheeks, she added, “A mother is such a chunk in a child’s life.” I know Mwalimu was such a chunk in Mumbi’s life and times ahead will not be easy.
When Kenya’s history is fully documented and shared between the people, we will be surprised at how similar were the risks we all took in various parts of the country to liberate ourselves from the colonial yoke. Our lived experiences and contributions to this new nation are integral parts of a large canvas that was painted by a myriad of people in diverse parts of our nation. We are only now piecing it together one story at a time.
During the colonial period, many new forms of leadership and organizing emerged around the country and many acts of resistance and rebellion were birthed by individual persons and communities. However, not everyone became aware of them because we were separated from one another by colonial forces. So now when we hear about each other’s lived experience, we are inspired to add our pieces to the tapestry of courage that has been buried and silenced by the conspiracy of domination. With that realization, we shall discover our common purpose as one people, one Kenya.
As we pay tribute to our fallen sister, Mwalimu Mĩcere Gĩthae Mũgo and reflect on how she was gripped all her life by the spirit of resistance, I want to add my personal testimony here as well. Her passing and personal stories have made my own even more poignant when I realize how similar were the circumstances in which we grew up, she in Baricho, Kirinyaga County, and I in Seme, Kisumu County.
Mĩcere and I go a long way back. We are close in age, her rika and mine are separated by only three years. I call her Nyiwuodha. In Dholuo language, Nyiwuodha means the person with whom you share similar experiences – separately and together – in the journey of life. This is not only about being in the exact same physical spaces at the same time, but also about shared moments, experiences and circumstances that make your lives resonate with one another.
We share many crucial experiences both in Kenya and globally. Our friendship and sistahood was built on a shared heritage which we were to discover only after we first met in the University of Nairobi in 1973. Our identities as women and our professional calling as academics and activists were shaped by the history of the times in which we grew up.
Both of us were children of resisters, human rights defenders and change makers who realised early that the colonial system, as Walter Rodney taught us in his book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, was a façade that was sold as development while its real purpose was to deprive folk of development opportunity.
As very young children we witnessed our own parents fight for freedom with the tools they had, in the spaces in which they found themselves.
Mĩcere’s father was a Senior Chief and Administrator in Central Province. My father was a Teacher, Schools Supervisor and Church Lay Reader in Nyanza Province. Mĩcere’s mother taught class. My mother was also a teacher/trainer of women in community development. Both our mothers worked alongside our fathers for the liberation and empowerment of women and girls in our communities.
Both of us were children of resisters, human rights defenders and change makers.
Our parents worked in the colonial system and had the opportunity to see, firsthand, the insidious nature of the system, its method of subjugating and disempowering our people and communities. Our parents, hers and mine, became fully aware that the system was inimical to the interests of the people and had to be fought by all means necessary. And they took risks at all times to sabotage and overturn the conditions that oppressed our people.
As Mĩcere’s father refused to be the tool for stamping out Gĩkũyũ Mau Mau freedom fighters, and as he was being thrown in jail for refusing to persecute the freedom fighters, my father and mother were running a clandestine, underground operation for detainees who were escaping from the colonial detention and labour camp on Mageta Island – a small mosquito- and tsetse fly-infested island on Lake Victoria where they had been sent to suffer ignominy and even die.
As my father was a teacher, he risked being fired from his job or jailed if found to be a sympathiser with the detainees who were rebelling and escaping from the long arm of the colonial system. Both Father and Mother took on the task to rescue, shelter, feed and hide several Kenyan freedom fighters. Many of the escapees were from as far afield as Mount Kenya, Ukambani and the coastal region who had been forcibly placed under arrest and confined on Mageta Island.
In our teens, we both found ourselves at the heart of desegregation of education in Kenya. By the time Mĩcere joined high school, like all former all-white schools, Limuru Girls School was now forced to admit children of all backgrounds. Mĩcere entered Limuru Girls School some two years ahead of me at A-Level, excelled there and went on to Makerere University – then a constituent college of the University of East Africa – where she studied English Literature. Two years later, in 1965, I joined the same Limuru Girls School, excelled and went on to the University of Dar es Salaam, then also a constituent college of the University of East Africa.
Mĩcere had gone before me and paved the way for us. Her motto was to excel and come top of her class. She demonstrated that Black African girls were capable of learning, taking leadership and winning in a multiracial setting. In those heady days, and as young teenagers, we found ourselves in the midst of white racism in our own country and suffered from it but went on undaunted to beat our classmates in all subjects hands down. As a result of our experiences in the school, we developed an intense dislike for any system in Kenya and elsewhere which weaponised difference to deny development opportunity.
We first met at the University of Nairobi 1973. Mĩcere was a lecturer in the Department of Literature and I was just joining the Institute for Development Studies (IDS) as a Junior Research Fellow. We both saw a sista in one another and from there we have shared much in our careers of knowledge building and teaching, and in our acts of rebellion against all forms of oppression. We discovered that, as college students, we were both deeply involved in the global anti-apartheid movement fighting for the freedom of South Africa. We were also deeply engaged in student movements for the liberation of Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Angola, Guinea Bissau and Cabo Verde.
Mĩcere demonstrated that Black African girls were capable of learning, taking leadership and winning in a multiracial setting.
This was followed by a long engagement in the women’s movement both in Africa and globally. This latter engagement was to bring us together for the greater part of our adult lives. In the year we met, 1973, I presented my first seminar paper on women in rural development at the IDS. Anticipating challenge, Mwalimu Mĩcere, then a young lecturer in the Department of Literature, came along to listen and see how my paper would be received in an all-male and mostly white IDS at the time. Other women who came included Phoebe Asiyo, Eddah Gachukia, Esther Ondipo Jonathan, Damaris Ayodo, Julia Ojiambo, Serah Lukalo, Margaret Mwangola and Terry Kantai. They all came to the seminar to hear me out and give me support in sistahood.
The debate was hot and not without controversy. Mĩcere spoke firmly in support. This seminar ensured that we launched the topic of Women and Development – irrevocably – as a legitimate area of study in the University of Nairobi. Professor Dharam Ghai, a Kenyan economist who was Director of IDS at the time, lent firm impartial support to this effort and authorised the revision and publication of the seminar working paper as a first Discussion Paper on Women at the IDS in 1974.
In 1973, Mĩcere and I collaborated in organising a conversation between women academics, researchers and rural women from around the country. The premise was that women needed to think together in order to act together to address social inequalities. Although only in the beginning stages of our theorising on women and society, our aim was to bring research and activism together to show how research could be used as a tool for bringing attention to the burdens of inequality borne by rural women. Key among them were: limited access to productive land, technical training, credit and finance, and inadequate agricultural research on the crops grown by women that formed the bulk of the country’s food security. Such was the interest drawn by the seminar that the late Professor James Kagia of Tigoni, Limuru and a University of Nairobi lecturer in Paediatrics, offered to be our interpreter from English to Kikuyu and vice versa during several sessions. We had a strong input from the Nyakĩnywa and Mabati Women from Nyeri as well as women from rural communities in the Coast, Nyanza and Western provinces whom we had invited to the seminar.
We both saw a sista in one another and from there we have shared much in our careers of knowledge building and teaching, and in our acts of rebellion against all forms of oppression.
Mĩcere earned her undergraduate degree in literature from Makerere University in 1966 and I earned mine in literature and sociology from Dar es Salaam University in 1970. Both of us received our Masters and PhD degrees in North America and in later years we both worked in the US.
From the 1990s onwards, our paths crossed many times in the course of our international careers. During this time, we had plenty of opportunities to exchange ideas on how to articulate and make more visible an African feminist epistemology based on our roots and understanding of the circumstances that disadvantage women in our continent. To frame the debate and call for action on African feminist epistemology, Mĩcere drew from African orature and literary material while I worked from the angle of the social sciences, policy analysis and research. Later, while she was Professor at Syracuse University and I Chief of the Africa Section in the United Nations Women’s Fund, Mĩcere took the time to find me in 1995 and interviewed me on how we as African women were engaging in the global feminist discourse on the empowerment of women within the framework of the United Nations and the Beijing Conference process.
This is just a glimpse of our mortal journey together. There is much more as many of you will read in our published works.
My sister Mĩcere was steeped in indigenous orature, so I will end with a little song from Luo folklore. The song comes from a story of defiance and strategy and it goes like this.
Wala Tinda, Wala wala Tinda
Silwal majanyiero okelo nyamin nene
Wala Wala Tinda, Wala wala Tinda
Silwal majanyiero okelo nyamin nene
Yuora mielie, wala wala Tinda
Maro mielka walawala tinda
Maro mielie otenga maudhili
Adapted from a tribute by Dr Achola Okeyo at the Kenya National Theatre, Nairobi, August 9, 2023.
Ama Ata Aidoo: A Tribute
Ama Ata Aidoo repositioned women’s writing within a male-dominated canon in African literature during the mid-1960s and her legacy can be seen in the outpouring of African literature in the twenty-first century by women authors who now dominate the field.
Ama Ata Aidoo is Ghana’s foremost woman writer whose distinguished career spans several decades of the post-independence era in Africa. Her literary contribution places her amongst the first generation of African women writers as a leading feminist voice within postcolonial writing. Through a feminist lens, her literary corpus conveys much insight into the complexities of African women’s lives in the colonial and postcolonial landscape of competing and challenging experiences in society. Her fictional works portray women characters who navigate local norms and expectations for women, customs and traditions, and the challenges of race, class, and gender inequalities within transnational spaces in western settings.
For over twenty years, my research, scholarship and teaching has explored the literature of African women writers, including Aidoo’s work, to highlight their experiences in society and to celebrate their remarkable contributions to women’s and gender studies through literary expression.
Aidoo is a pioneering figure of immense significance through the creation of Africa’s first dramatic work in English by an African woman, The Dilemma of a Ghost in 1965, followed by her second play, Anowa in 1970.
As a commanding literary figure, Aidoo repositioned women’s writing within a male-dominated canon in African literature during the mid-1960s. Her novels, Our Sister Killjoy: or, Reflections of a Black-Eyed Squint (1977) and Changes: A Love Story (1991) disrupted stereotypical portrayals of African women that were common in male-authored African texts written during the twentieth century. In both novels, Aidoo crafted female protagonists who were strong, intelligent, and outspoken as a form of ‘writing back’ to reclaim women’s voices from the margins to centre stage in the African literary world. Important themes in Aidoo’s works include postcolonial perspectives, feminist expression, the interplay of tradition and modernity, and the relationship between Ghana and the African diaspora, among other compelling issues of postcolonial discourse.
Her creative artistry has woven a tapestry of literature across genres of poetry, drama, novels, short fiction, essays, and literary criticism. Her short fiction includes No Sweetness Here (1970), The Girl Who Can and Other Stories (1997), and Diplomatic Pounds (2012). Her poetry collections include Someone Talking to Sometime (1985), Birds and Other Poems (1987), An Angry Letter in January, and Other Poems (1992), and After the Ceremonies: New and Selected Poems (2017). Like many African writers in the past and the present, Aidoo’s literary style draws heavily upon African oral traditions and a combination of prose and poetry.
Ama Ata Aidoo was born on March 23, 1940, in southern Ghana to a royal family of the Fante ethnic community. Encouraged by her father to pursue a western education, she began writing at the age of fifteen. After completing secondary school at Wesley Girl’s School in Cape Coast, she attended the University of Ghana at Legon, where she majored in English literature. While at University she participated in the Ghana Drama Studio and published her first play, Dilemma of a Ghost in 1965. Her teaching career began in 1970 and lasted for over a decade at the University of Cape Coast but the unfavorable political climate in the country failed to nurture her creative talent. In 1982 she was appointed Minister of Education by the then head of state, J. J. Rawlings. She resigned from her position in less than two years and migrated to Zimbabwe where she resumed writing and teaching. She subsequently taught in the United States, at the University of Richmond and at Brown University, until her retirement in 2012.
Ama Ata Aidoo’s works have received critical acclaim and robust scholarly engagement by writers and literary critics. Among these are Emerging Perspectives on Ama Ata Aidoo (1999), The Art of Ama Ata Aidoo: Documentary Film (2014), Essays in Honor of Ama Ata Aidoo at 70: a Reader in African Cultural Studies (2012) and The Art of Ama Ata Aidoo: Polylectics and Reading Against Neocolonialism (1994).
I am fortunate to have experienced a rewarding friendship with Ama Ata Aidoo that began at the African Literature Association annual conference in 2012. I will always cherish the memory of her warmth and hospitality as well as her insightful perspectives on contemporary women’s issues in Ghana and the African diaspora. In the early years of my career as a literary scholar, her fiction inspired my scholarly engagement with victimhood and agency in the work of African women writers as well as my approach to feminist-inspired African texts through critical analysis of her novel Changes: A Love Story, the short story collection No Sweetness Here and the play Anowa. In these iconic fictional works Ama Ata Aidoo presents paradoxical outcomes for women characters as they respond to patriarchy, urbanization, and the conflicting demands of modernity in the colonial and postcolonial landscape of Ghana.
The novel Changes skillfully examines the complexities of Ghanaian women’s difficult choices and responsibility for one’s destiny in life. In the novel, Aidoo interrogates the extent to which a woman who follows her own path ends up better off than the woman who bends to the status quo through obedience to conventional norms in society. The stories in No Sweetness Here portray Ghanaian women faced with choices that challenge conventional norms and expectations as well as realities of the modern world of social flux and changing identities. The setting of Anowa is nineteenth century colonial Ghana where feminist themes emerge through the actions of the female protagonist. Anowa rebels against parental authority and women’s traditional roles by marrying a man her family has rejected, resulting in tragic outcomes. In her role as an outspoken voice for women, Aidoo articulates the impact of social, economic, and political forces on the lives of African women. Aidoo asserts that, “on the whole, African traditional societies seem to have been at odds with themselves as to what exactly to do with women”. This dilemma lies at the crux of Aidoo’s feminist perspectives expressed in her writing and underscores the pressing need for social transformation and women’s equality.
Aidoo interrogates the extent to which a woman who follows her own path ends up better off than the woman who bends to the status quo through obedience to conventional norms in society.
As a consummate storyteller, the corpus of Aidoo’s writings captures the dynamism of Ghanaian and African women’s lives through strong women characters that exhibit intelligence, strength, and agency in the search for happiness and success in their lives. Ama Ata Aidoo’s legacy can be seen in the outpouring of African literature in the twenty-first century by women authors who now dominate the field. A new generation of leading women writers from Africa owe their inspiration to Ama Ata Aidoo and other pioneers like Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta and Mariama Ba who broke barriers for women as literary godmothers of feminist expression and innovative ways of telling the African story. Ghana and the world have lost a commanding presence on the literary stage and her works will remain as cherished classics in African and world literature.
Mĩcere Gĩthae Mũgo: A Mother and a Gardener
In the garden of her home, Mwalimu found a mirror to her own life, where tending to growth required patience, determination, and the willingness to embrace, metaphorically and physically, both sunlight and storms.
“I love to see a young girl go out and grab the world by the lapels.”
– Maya Angelou
In the hushed corners of memory, where the tapestries of lives are woven, there lies a figure both fierce and tender – Mĩcere Gĩthae Mũgo. Hers wasn’t just a name etched in the annals of African literature and orature, a name revered in halls of the ivory tower, or a name heralded by activists. Indeed, she was all those things, and more. But behind closed doors, in the shadows of acclaim and applause, she was a cultivated radiant soul on whose shoulders so much was placed, a soul weighed heavily by unfulfilled dreams, a soul whose essence blossomed in myriad facets, each illuminating the mosaic of her existence. Much has been said and written about her in tribute and commemoration since her demise, all noteworthy. But alongside what is known lies the person as seen through the inner corridors of her life. It is there we find not just the public icon, but the woman, and it is through that lens that I wish to explore the layers of Mwalimu’s life that coloured her world.
In 1976, a struggling Cameroonian-Nigerian musician, Prince Nico Mbarga, and his band Rocafil Jazz, released the song Sweet Mother, an upbeat single, sung in Pidgin English, and featuring a West African highlife-infused tempo, with a Congolese Soukous-style fingerpicking guitar lead. Despite having been previously rejected by no less than three major record companies, it went on to become one of the best-selling and most popular Pan-African singles ever released. The lyrics began thus:
Sweet mother I no go forget you
For the suffer wey you suffer for me yeah
It was the quintessential African ode to motherhood. In equal parts full of praise and mention of sacrifice, it symbolised the unbreakable bond between mother and child, and is often played at weddings and other ceremonies far beyond Nigeria and Cameroon. Perhaps more than any other piece of art, this song captures the intimate tri-generational and parallel relationships between Micere Githae Mugo and her mother, and Micere Githae Mugo and her children.
Nothing brought Mwalimu more comfort and joy than her children. For those familiar with her lectures and presentations, nary a single one began without an elaborate acknowledgment of Mumbi and Njeri, replete with all their respective accomplishments (much to their irritation). Even in person, when speaking or referring to either one of them, a sparkle would light up her eyes as immense pride beamed. Every decision she made since their birth was carried out with them in mind, and although she often expressed regret for the effects some of those decisions had on her children, feeling her life’s trajectory had yielded undue hardship on them, Mumbi and Njeri would always reassure their mother of the contrary. It was this precise journey that forged them into the women they became, the daughters she referred to as her “besties” and of whom Mwalimu took immense satisfaction in being the loudest cheerleader and praise singer. If there was a heaven on earth for Mwalimu, it existed when she was beside her children.
Mwalimu’s nurturing soul remained consistent throughout her life, reverberating across distance and geographies, always planting seeds of hope and reassurance in her children’s hearts. For Mũmbi wa Mũgo, and the late Njeri Kũi, their mother’s stories, woven from threads of struggle and strength, ignited in them fires of resilience, reminding them that roots, no matter how bruised and imperfect, are meant to be nourished and celebrated.
Believing, as the African American novelist Toni Morrison often said, that “the function of freedom is to free someone else”, Mwalimu’s essence as a mother, and her sense of family, transcended mere biology. She opened her heart and home to many, becoming a mother and sister to countless regardless of their origin and circumstances. Throughout her life, her homes did not discriminate. They were sites of knowledge, sanctuary, community, and entertainment for people from virtually every walk of life.
Mwalimu was the nurturer of dreams, fostering creativity and independent thinking in all those she embraced as her children, reflecting Bell Hooks’ notion of love as “the will to extend one’s self for the purpose of nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth”. I recall her taking a keen interest in my own professional endeavours. While mine were different in discipline from hers, she recognised the common thread with which we pursued our respective fields, and invested her time and resources, often while battling one or more ailments, in guiding me towards conclusions that would embolden my arguments and position my work through the lens of Africana scholarship. Mwalimu frequently and publicly cheered my accomplishments, delightfully advertising the products of my work to the audiences we shared. When I was commissioned to curate a collective Pan-African architectural exhibition as part of the 2023 Venice Architecture Biennial, her thunderous applause that ricocheted in the longest email I’ve ever received from her – and this is not to say her emails were ever short – contained a critical review of my curatorial statement with appendices to boot, all attached in a multiple-page document that she took the trouble to manually digitise, all the while battling an infection.
She opened her heart and home to many, becoming a mother and sister to countless regardless of their origin and circumstances.
Mwalimu’s spirit was that of a wanderer. She roamed not just through physical landscapes but through the corridors of the human experience, embodying Chinua Achebe’s notion that “proverbs are the palm oil with which words are eaten”. An avid traveller, she so enjoyed encounters with diverse cultures through which she embraced the human experience in its myriad shades, recognising that unity arises from understanding and fostering solidarity with all who are disempowered and disenfranchised. In every place she lived, Mwalimu never stood idle or quiet in the face of oppression, always agitating and mobilising for the issues of the day, be they fighting dictatorship in Kenya, defeating Apartheid in South Africa and Palestine, supporting LBGTQI and immigrant rights globally, resisting White Supremacy and protecting the right to vote in the United States. All these and more she championed, determined to lend her voice to the voiceless, and might to the weak.
The tapestry of Mwalimu’s life extended beyond her family, weaving through communities with the deftness of the Afro-Cuban laureate, Nicolás Cristóbal Guillén Batista’s poetic strokes. She was a bridge builder, a community organiser, an embodiment of Assata Shakur’s vision of revolution as an ongoing process. She recognised that a single thread couldn’t hold the fabric of change; it required collective hands and shared dreams to stitch together a world of equity and compassion.
“Sometimes you take detours to get where you need to go.” So wrote the Haitian-American author Edwidge Dandicat. And accordingly, exile couldn’t extinguish the fire within Mwalimu’s heart. No stranger to betrayal, she lived life looking forward, not forgetting the pains and losses of the past, but not clutching onto them nor clinging to bygone eras, acutely aware that a closed door is also a new beginning. It is an opportunity to resist containment, to evolve, to sow and nurture seeds elsewhere, with the new environment no different from a new blank page in one’s story. That is not to say she forgot about where she was from. Mwalimu was always engaged and connected to Kenya. But exile pushed her towards new horizons, all of which left identifiers on her that were as indelible as her origins.
She was a bridge builder, a community organiser, an embodiment of Assata Shakur’s vision of revolution as an ongoing process.
“How do I survive?” Mwalimu once rhetorically remarked during a 2015 conversation with her biographer Ndirangũ Wachanga. “[I survive through] linking up with struggles wherever I happen to find myself. That lesson really came very powerfully from my mother and is summarised in My Mother’s Poems, this notion of learning as human beings to create spaces, to create new homes, which we have to learn as progressive pan Africanists of what oppressed people, especially what enslaved people did.”
To buttress herself against the torment of being separated from all that was loved and familiar, Mwalimu immersed herself in the everyday lives of the people in the places she lived. Following the principles of Utu and Ubuntu, she embraced their concerns as her own, their fights as new battlegrounds. Like the Guyanese academic and activist Walter Rodney’s unwavering commitment to truth, she stood firm against injustice, transforming her longing for home into an unyielding struggle for justice. Mwalimu bore the weight of people’s hopes as she fought for a world where words, like South African singer-songwriter Miriam Makeba’s melodies, knew no boundaries.
In 1982, while addressing a Malcom X weekend lecture at Harvard University, the African American feminist philosopher Audre Lorde observed, “Revolution is not a one-time event.” This Mwalimu understood well; she once chuckled with absolute glee at my calling out her lifelong affinity for mischief. Defiant to a fault, no nemesis was too big, too powerful, for her to oppose. Resistance, she felt, was as important as joy. And her defiance spread across facets. She abhorred, for example, the brandishing of titles and displays of social stratification – hallmarks, she believed, of the insecure. There she was, sitting quietly in a waiting room for one of her medical appointments, her body weakened from the effects of aggressive chemotherapy, proudly flaunting a tote bag brightly emblazoned with the words “Fight the Power!”
To buttress herself against the torment of being separated from all that was loved and familiar, Mwalimu immersed herself in the everyday lives of the people in the places she lived.
In the front and rear gardens of her home in Syracuse, there Mwalimu found solace. An avid gardener, the cold of winter was kept at bay by her anticipation of spring, when the loosening soils and warmer temperatures would draw her outside, along with both willing and unwilling accomplices, gardening paraphernalia in tow, to till the loosening soil. This, even when it was against Mumbi’s ever-vigilant advice, was her happy place. Basking under the sun, caring for the kaleidoscopic hues of the blooming canvas that was her vegetable and floral ensemble, Mwalimu found a mirror to her own life – where tending to growth required patience, determination, and the willingness to embrace, metaphorically and physically, both sunlight and storms. And it was under her sun hat, and in her gardening gloves and gumboots that some of her most devoted time was spent.
The months from April to October were focused on, among other things, planting, weeding, and harvesting. The discipline put in the effort that went into producing organic vegetables was second only to that which drove her writing, and always released a dose of energy that no medication could substitute. Every year, without fail, Mwalimu fastidiously planted a range of vegetables including heirloom tomatoes and kale, a headless leafy green cabbage similar to sukuma wiki that was also favourite of the neighbourhood gopher – a stubborn rodent of a creature that often, and quite successfully, claimed exclusive domain over this plant; Kunde, also known as cowpea leaves; and a plethora of herbs. Harvests were multiple throughout the summer, bringing her immense satisfaction and the luxury of consuming home-grown produce year round.
At the front of the house, bees pollinated her assembly of annuals and perennials, flowers that were also a delicacy for the local deer. “Pirates!” She called them. Each flower petal, each vegetable harvest, was a testament to her resilience, a reflection of her understanding that life’s beauty lies in its imperfections and in the sum of its parts.
Between the pages of books, Mwalimu embarked on a ceaseless voyage of intellectual discovery as she consumed literature with voracious hunger. She knew that the most profound journeys were those of the mind, and through every word devoured, she collected fragments of wisdom to sew into the tapestry of her own life, and the lives of others.
In 2018, I gifted Mwalimu the book Barracoon: The Story of the “Last Black Cargo”, a small title by the African American anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston. “What a read!” she exclaimed, and went on to discuss how the author’s insistence on claiming and establishing African American Orature as a site of knowledge was nothing short of a revolutionary act. We would later share thoughts on the legitimacy of marginalized languages like Caribbean Patois or Kenyan Sheng, loathed by the elites but nonetheless authentic as linguistic systems, capable of literary rigour, and worthy of celebration. Antiguan novelist Jamaica Kincaid asks in her book A Small Place, “For isn’t it odd that the only language I have in which to speak of this crime is the language of the criminal who committed the crime?” Drawing from that, Mwalimu recognized that linguistic colonialism was as brutal and unjust as all other forms of dominance, and that language, in whatever form, is above all the heartbeat of a community.
But perhaps what she enjoyed reading the most was personal correspondence from those in her orbit. Every sentence in a personal email was carefully and diligently referred to or responded to. And those responses were ever so lyrical, so elaborate, so engaging that one would immediately feel the weight of the world in their attempts to write back in kind – an exercise quite often futile. And God help you if you did not respond!
Each flower petal, each vegetable harvest, was a testament to her resilience, a reflection of her understanding that life’s beauty lies in its imperfections and in the sum of its parts.
A deeply spiritual being, Mwalimu prayed to God, often. But she also meditated daily, believing that reflecting and thinking about the nature of, and occurrences on, those dear to her was aligned with and inseparable from her own circumstances. She did not, however, subscribe to a singular organized system of belief and worship, and was always sceptical about seeing God through an externally programmed lens. Mwalimu’s spirituality was more personalized, and centred on providing her with peace and purpose. She was aware, as Professor Jacob Olupona states, that African “deities, spirits, gods, ancestors, and personal and impersonal forces are regarded as active agents in the created world…”, and ancestral tradition, the veneration of parents and forbears was central to an honest and unfiltered understanding of our world, rooted in indigenous African knowledge systems. She called out to the ancestors often, seeking their guidance and comfort, believing that the suppression of these systems remained a critical component in the unfinished process of African liberation.
At the core of her being, Mwalimu was human, embracing and being open about her vulnerabilities with the grace of James Baldwin’s reflections on authenticity. Her honesty, like a mirror reflecting truth, resonated with the essence of what it meant to be complete. In a world fraught with façades, she dared to bare her soul, displaying to us how authenticity is not only rare, but is a revolution in itself. Hers is a tapestry woven with threads of love, struggle, growth, and ultimately truth. This is what set her apart from many. Ever conscious of social relationships that are of equal status, intellectual openness and possibilities for critique and creative engagement, Mwalimu’s encounters with the world followed her fervent belief in an old Gĩkũyũ adage, kwaaranĩria nĩ kwendana, meaning “to hold dialogue is to love.”
“For isn’t it odd that the only language I have in which to speak of this crime is the language of the criminal who committed the crime?”
From Kariria, Kirinyaga County in Central Kenya on the southern slopes of the great mountain, to the revered halls of Makerere University perched on the hilltops of Kampala, Uganda, to the maritime province of New Brunswick on the Atlantic coast of Canada, to the then politically active University of Nairobi in Kenya’s bustling capital, to the blooming Jacaranda tree-laden avenues of Harare, Zimbabwe, and finally to her home in Syracuse, nestled in the heart of Onondaga County in Central New York, Mwalimu’s legacy beckons us to embrace life’s journey with modesty and fervour. These two qualities, along with courage, guided and grounded her throughout her life. They were, however, not qualities gained as she navigated through the world, but rather qualities that were already in place, and instilled in her as a child by her mother, a woman who had walked her own path before her, experienced and overcome her own share of turmoil and in the process found her own voice. Mwalimu remained anchored to her mother, her metaphorical North Star, and grateful for the sacrifices that were made, and the pain that was endured, to allow for the becoming of Mĩcere Gĩthae Mũgo.
If i no sleep, my mother no go sleep
If i no chop, my mother no go chop
She no dey tire ooo
Sweet mother i no go forget dey suffer wey you suffer for me yeh yeh
Sweet mother yeeeeh
Sweet mother oh, oh oh
And so ends Prince Nico Mbarga’s Sweet Mother, so aptly describing the bonds between a woman in the central highlands of Kenya who despite losing it all, would persevere to nurture Mĩcere Gĩthae Mũgo, bequeathing to her the fortitude to stay the course, a foundation that would one day take Micere to previously unimaginable heights. The daughter would herself become a mother, passing onto the next generation what would take Mwalimu’s legacy even further. Grace.
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