As the recorded number of infections in Africa edges towards the six million mark, it has become clear that COVID-19 is not only a public health challenge.
How early post-independence clarity on the link between food self-sufficiency and national sovereignty offers lessons for contemporary efforts.
Billions of cigarettes, most made by BAT, are smuggled north through Mali every year on their way to the gray markets of the Sahel and Northern Africa.
With Muammar Gaddafi gone, battle-hardened desert tribal groupings and latent ethnic rivalries have erupted in the Sahel, producing hundreds of small conflicts that had been simmering for decades.
The legitimate grievances of the people of Mali must come before the interests of regional and international actors and a balance must be found between recognising the demands of the population and the need to maintain stability.