Pre-independence, Kenya’s Northern Frontier Districts fought to be part of Somalia during Shifta War or Gaf Daba (1963–1967). While newly independent Kenya won against the “Shifta,” this experience inaugurated the securitization of the relationship between the Kenyan authorities, the region, and the people. As a result, the region experienced a series of massacres- the Wagala (1984), Bagala (1998), and Malka Mari (1982). The advent of the war on terror saw the community collectively labeled as terrorists. As a result of such labeling, accessing state services, including the National Identity Card, passports, etc, has become difficult for people from the region.
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