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Visualising Plastics Use in Society

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Every day, tons of plastics are scavenged from various water bodies around the world. These plastics cause immeasurable damage to fragile ecosystems both on land and at sea. Cleaning up micro-plastics from the oceans requires concerted efforts by stakeholders across the board, and time is ticking.

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Plastic waste dumped on the beach at Ras Ukowe, Manda Island on Kenya’s Indian Ocean coast.

Plastic waste dumped on the beach at Ras Ukowe, Manda Island on Kenya’s Indian Ocean coast.

Plastic waste floating on Lake Solai, Koibanan Island. This waste is due to littering by local tourists who throw them on the Island and they get washed away to the lake.

Plastic waste floating on Lake Solai, Koibanan Island. This waste is due to littering by local tourists who throw them on the Island and they get washed away to the lake.

In Kariobangi light industries, north of Nairobi, Gjenje Makers recycle tonnes of plastics on a daily basis into eco-friendly bricks that are widely used on driveways, road signs, sidewalks, and as alternative building material for low-cost housing.

A food seller hawks ready-made in between mountains of garbage to the people who scavenge garbage for a living in Dandora dump site.

A section of a manhole grills on Nairobi roads in the central business district traps trash. Smaller pieces of plastic such as cigarette butts, plastic food wrappers and water bottles.can get through all the way down to Nairobi river.

A section of a manhole grills on Nairobi roads in the central business district traps trash. Smaller pieces of plastic such as cigarette butts, plastic food wrappers and water bottles.can get through all the way down to Nairobi river.

According to Amani Mwikia an environmental Officer at NEMA, most of this plastic clogs drains and creates a problem in sewage systems, clogged drainge and stan gant pools.

According to Amani Mwikia an environmental Officer at NEMA, most of this plastic clogs drains and creates a problem in sewage systems, clogged drainge and stan gant pools.

A herd of cows foraging for food among plastyic wastes in Kitengela town. Most post-mortem of dead cows has often revealed the presence of plastic waste in their bodies and choking from palstic bags as the cause of death.

A growing illegal dumpsite on a local community grounds in Huruma Eldoret, consisting of plastic water bottles, orange peels and plastic bags.

A growing illegal dumpsite on a local community grounds in Huruma Eldoret, consisting of plastic water bottles, orange peels and plastic bags.

A growing illegal dumpsite on a local community grounds in Huruma Eldoret, consisting of plastic water bottles, orange peels and plastic bags.

A growing illegal dumpsite on a local community grounds in Huruma Eldoret, consisting of plastic water bottles, orange peels and plastic bags.

Asection of a collapsed fence littered with plastic waste along the Sosian river in Uasin Gishu County.

A section of the famous Sosiani river in Uasin Ngishu county, is chocking with plastic waste washed away by rains from the surrounding areas.

A section of the famous Sosiani river in Uasin Ngishu county, is chocking with plastic waste washed away by rains from the surrounding areas.

A kilometre away from Nakuru CBD is Gioto dumping site, a constact environmental nightmare, safety problem, and health hazard to local residents.

Residents of Gioto dumpsiteforage for plastics and wastes for selling to scrap metal dealers.

A kilometre away from Nakuru CBD is Gioto dumping site, a constact environmental nightmare, safety problem, and health hazard to local residents.

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Jimmy Kitiro is a photo-journalist and videographer at The Elephant.

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Chakula Mashinani

Chakula Mashinani turns the gaze of our complex national culinary adaptation away from the cities and the urban, mostly educated elite, to the rural life and community.

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Chakula Mashinani turns the gaze of our complex national culinary adaptation away from the cities and the urban, mostly educated elite, to the rural life and community.

A banana stockist readies his produce for sell to clients on the Meru Highway

A banana stockist readies his produce for sell to clients on the Meru Highway.

Buchey Dairy farming in Nanyuki sells milk and heifers. A heifer goes for about KSh.250,000.

A rooster stares through a mesh at a poultry farm in Ruiru.

A dairy cow at Suyian Ranch in Nanyuki

A dairy cow at Suyian Ranch in Nanyuki.

A farmer weeding his rows of kales at his farm in Kenol, Muranga County

A farmer weeding his rows of kales at his farm in Kenol, Muranga County.

Harvesting time.

A roadside seller with his stock in Kirigiti area, Kiambu county

A roadside seller with his stock in Kirigiti area, Kiambu county.

A tomato vendor inspects her stock at Thika market

A tomato vendor inspects her stock at Thika market.

Buchey Dairy farm in Nanyuki, famed for its milk and heifers.

Buchey Dairy farm in Nanyuki, famed for its milk and heifers.

Different variety of pepper on sale at Ngara produce Market, Nairobi

Different variety of pepper on sale at Ngara produce Market, Nairobi

Gathue Coffee Farmers members group sort coffee cherries before delivery to the factory

Gathue Coffee Farmers members group sort coffee cherries before delivery to the factory.

A section of ripening coffee cherries at a farm in Nyeri

A section of ripening coffee cherries at a farm in Nyeri.

Rows of Kales at a farm in Mukurweini.

Rows of Kales at a farm in Mukurweini.

A Maize plantation in Kabarak farm, Rift Valley

A Maize plantation in Kabarak farm, Rift Valley.

Dozens of cows at the Kiwawa Dairy production milking area

Dozens of cows at the Kiwawa Dairy production milking area.

An ewe and lamb at a sheep farm in Limuru, Kiambu County

An ewe and lamb at a sheep farm in Limuru, Kiambu County.

This article is part of The Elephant Food Edition Series done in collaboration with Route to Food Initiative (RTFI). Views expressed in the article are not necessarily those of the RTFI.

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Diani’s Changing Waters

A small fishing community’s account in Chale, south of Diani, indicates dwindling fish population in shallow waters.

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With a swift movement, Bakari lifts himself onto the small communal fishing boat and is helped by Seif to pull the fishing basket out of the water. “This spot is better,” Bakari says as he empties the basket onto the floor of boat. A medium-sized snapper flaps around in the middle of other smaller fish. This is the third basket out of five that the four fishermen from Chale are retrieving this morning. The first two baskets came up with hardly any fish, just a handful of the rabbitfish and parrotfish that are common in shallow waters.

Catch of the day: a snapper, considered Grade A fish, caught together with rabbitfish and zebrafish which is considered Grade B and C fish, respectively (17 October 2021).

Catch of the day: a snapper, considered Grade A fish, caught together with rabbitfish and zebrafish which is considered Grade B and C fish, respectively (17 October 2021).

The generally low yield has been a regular dilemma facing this simple fishing community.  “I remember ten years ago, the water would be full of sardines. We could not believe our eyes. We would bring so many buckets full of sardines back to the village to dry, sell and use for cooking. These days, there are no sardines,” Seif says.

Fisherman Seif Hamadi (40 years) walks towards the communal fishing boat in Chale as other community members collect sea grass to use as bait (October 17, 2021)

Fisherman Seif Hamadi (40 years) walks towards the communal fishing boat in Chale as other community members collect sea grass to use as bait (October 17, 2021)

Kenya’s coastline covers 640 kilometres overlooking the Western Indian Ocean. It is a strategic lifeline for the country’s small fishing communities that reside along the coast and practice small-scale fishing for their livelihoods. In 2015, the World Bank estimated that around 27,000 people were employed by the fisheries sector, including 13,000 artisanal fishers. The sector further supports a much higher number of individuals who indirectly benefit from it, such as traders, and input suppliers.

Chale village, Seif’s home, is nestled in land planted with mango, baobab, papaya and other trees. Baboons roam under the trees and between the simple homes in search of food. From the village, home to approximately 2,000 inhabitants, it is a fifteen-minute walk to Chale Beach, where Seif teams up with Mohammed and Bakari on an early Sunday morning to go out on their daily fishing journey. The tide usually dictates what type of fishing they will be doing and it is a good day for basket fishing. Baskets are filled with sea grass and left overnight in different spots around the shallow waters off the beach. According to Seif, more than 50 fishermen operate from the communal land at Chale Beach.

Seif and Bakari pull out a basket to retrieve the catch (October 17, 2021).

Seif and Bakari pull out a basket to retrieve the catch (October 17, 2021).

Dripping with sweat from the heat of the rising morning sun, Seif explains that fish prices vary according to a grading system that is used in the market. Grades A to C cost between US$ 3.00 to USD 1.80 per kilogramme of fish, respectively. The higher the grade, the higher the selling price. On that particular day, with the exception of one snapper, all the fish caught in the shallow waters using the basket fishing method fall in the lower category of prices, generating a limited profit for the most hardworking individuals along the value chain.

The Kenyan government recognises the strategic value of the country’s marine life. Dubbed the Blue Economy, the government has prioritised the sector as a key component of its 2030 development agenda. In 2018, reports estimated that the annual economic value of goods and services in Kenya’s blue economy could be worth approximately US$4.4 billion, beating the tourism sector share by more than US$1.4 billion.

Rabbitfish weighed for sale at the small local communal market on Chale beach (October 16, 2021).

Rabbitfish weighed for sale at the small local communal market on Chale beach (October 16, 2021).

Artisanal fishing like that practiced in Chale makes up the majority of marine fisheries in Kenya. It is estimated that approximately 80 per cent of all marine products come from coastal waters and reefs, while 20 per cent is from offshore fishing. In 2016, the World Bank estimated that artisanal marine fisheries production stood at about 24,000 metric tonnes. Total fish production in Kenya (including inland capture, marine capture, and aquaculture) amounted to about 150,000 metric tonnes with a market value of about US$240,000 million. The contribution of the fisheries sector to the national economy is much larger when the full value chain is considered.

Bakari returns to the boat after a quick dive to drop a basket in a specific spot on the ocean floor (October 17, 2021).

Bakari returns to the boat after a quick dive to drop a basket in a specific spot on the ocean floor (October 17, 2021).

However, weak governance has led to overexploitation and degradation of near-shore fisheries. “Our government officials are corrupt. They allow Tanzanian fishermen to come into our waters and fish using nets that catch even small fish! There is no fish anymore for us to catch because of this corruption!” exclaims Seif.

Seif makes his way back to Chale village with a bucket of fish for him and his family (October 17, 2021).

Seif makes his way back to Chale village with a bucket of fish for him and his family (October 17, 2021).

His observations are confirmed by reports from national and international organisations. A 2018 report by the Kenya Fisheries and Maritime Institute states that most commercial species are on the decline in the Kenyan waters. A media report released in May 2021 describes how increased cheap imports from China, overfishing in shallow waters and the lack of sophisticated tools that would enable fishermen to venture into deep water fishing, are affecting small fishing communities along the Kenyan coast. Unemployment, the lack of alternative livelihoods and open access to shoreline fishing are further exacerbating the problem.

The hardship experienced by the Chale fishing community is pushing community members to find other means of generating income. “Our elders are selling parts of their ancestral lands because they need money. Those lands you see that are fenced are sold, mostly to rich politicians,” Seif explains. Chale is representative of similar neighbouring coastal communities.

One of the regular wholesale buyers chooses her catch at the local beach communal market in Chale (October 16, 2021).

One of the regular wholesale buyers chooses her catch at the local beach communal market in Chale (October 16, 2021).

Although the Kenyan government introduced plans to manage artisanal fishing in order to address the problem of dwindling fish stocks, compliance with such measures from small fishers remains limited as they depend on the sector for their livelihoods. In effect, while the management of fisheries has been decentralised to Beach Management Units within the coastal communities, and even though villages like Chale have a communal management structure, they do not always comply with the established management plans meant to preserve fish reserves and support livelihoods into the future. Being some of the poorest communities in Kenya, artisanal fishers in villages along the coast instead focus on daily subsistence.

Hundreds of thousands of lives are threatened by the changing waters of the Indian Ocean. But despite the grim reality, Seif and his fellow fishers will continue to do what they learned from their elders in order to put food on the table: go out and fish. 

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Unhistories – Kenya’s Mau Mau: Resistance, Mass Graves and Compensation

This third part of the Unhistories series covers some of the figures who shaped the fight on both sides among Kenyans and the British, and introduces members from the Mau Mau War Veterans Association and their stories.

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In 2014, Belgian documentary artist Max Pinckers was invited to the Archive of Modern Conflict in London, where he came across a collection of British propaganda material relating to the 1950s “Mau Mau Emergency Crisis” in Kenya. Since then he has been working with various Mau Mau War Veterans Associations in Kenya, with a particular focus on using photography to (re-)visualize the fight for independence from their personal perspectives. This includes mass graves, former detention camp buildings, locations of former mobile gallows, cave hideouts, oral witness testimonies, portraits and demonstrations of personal experiences.

This ongoing documentary project titled Unhistories departs from the Hanslope Disclosure in which British colonial archives were destroyed, hidden and manipulated. Known as Operation Legacy in the 1950s, the British colonial administration in Kenya destroyed much of the documentation relating to the Emergency prior to their departure in 1963. Unhistories is a collaboration with Mau Mau veterans, Kenyans who survived the colonial violence, historians, artists, activists, writers, archives, universities and museumsto fill in the missing gaps of the archives.

This third part of the Unhistories series covers some of the figures who shaped the fight on both sides among Kenyans and the British, and introduces members from the Mau Mau War Veterans Association and their stories.

Field Marshal Muthoni wa Kirima after emerging from the forest in 1963 to lay down arms at the flag of free Kenya at Ruringu Stadium, Nyeri, Kenya
Field Marshal Muthoni wa Kirima after emerging from the forest in 1963 to lay down arms at the flag of free Kenya at Ruringu Stadium, Nyeri, Kenya.

Field Marshal Muthoni wa Kirima

Muthoni wa Kirima (b.1930) attained the rank of Field Marshal. She entered the Aberdare Forest in 1952 and was never caught, although she still has a bullet lodged in her hand. She was nicknamed “Nina wa Thonjo” (weaver bird) by Dedan Kimathi because of her ability to weave brilliant war strategies. She was one of the last Mau Mau who laid down their arms at the flag of free Kenya at Ruringu stadium in 1963, where she met Jomo Kenyatta.

She still has the same dreadlocks she had when fighting in the forest, which she calls “the history of Kenya.” They are a symbol of her dissatisfaction with the new governments and she vows only to cut them when the deserved compensation is given to the Mau Mau veterans.

“I emerged from the forest after eleven years but was never given even an inch of land. I have nothing to show for those eleven years, not even a needle. It was only the sons of the supporters of the white men who benefited from the blood and sweat of our battered bodies.”

“I am still in the forest,” she says. She wants the “protruding bones of fallen heroes in shallow graves in Mt Kenya forests” collected and buried honorably. “The bones of my fellow freedom fighters are, like me, crying in the forests. We ventured into the forests to free the country from the grip of the white settlers. We thought that those we left behind schooling would fight for us, but things turned out differently.” The erasure of Muthoni and others like her from Kenya’s history books depresses her as she sites how unfortunate it is that “only white people” visit her inquiring about her story.

Field Marshal Muthoni wa Kirima at her home with her grandson Bernard Mungai Kamande, Nyeri, Kenya, 2019
Field Marshal Muthoni wa Kirima at her home with her grandson Bernard Mungai Kamande, Nyeri, Kenya, 2019.
Field Marshal Muthoni wa Kirima’s coat made from animal skins worn during her time in the forest, Nyeri, Kenya, 2019.
Field Marshal Muthoni wa Kirima’s coat made from animal skins worn during her time in the forest, Nyeri, Kenya, 2019.
TNA, CO 1066/15. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/15. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/15. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/15. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/15. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/15. The National Archives, Kew, UK.
Unhistories - Kenya’s Mau Mau: Documents and Personalities
Unhistories - Kenya’s Mau Mau: Documents and Personalities

Peter Irungu Njuguna

In the whole of Central Province the British installed a villagization program for women and children. The villages were surrounded by a fence, a trench with spikes, and Home Guards in watchtowers. You’d leave early in the morning to go for forced labor, either digging roads, digging trenches; just out of spite so that you are continuously engaged.

At 5 pm you had one hour to leave the compound and search for food. One hour to go and look for food to feed your family. If you were late in coming back, you were arrested and taken to detention at the inner post, because it was alleged that you were helping the Mau Mau on the outside. When in detention you were beaten, whipped and you would sleep outside. In the morning you would be forced to carry a basin full of sand on your head for 12 hours, with your hands up, without putting it down.

— Peter Irungu Njuguna, Murang’a, 2019

Detainee death report, Langata Prison Camp, 1956 KNA, DC/MU/3/10/26. Kenya National Archives, Nairobi, Kenya.
Detainee death report, Langata Prison Camp, 1956 KNA, DC/MU/3/10/26. Kenya National Archives, Nairobi, Kenya.
Nderitu Kamunyu, a Mau Mau village leader and oath administrator, demonstrates how he helped hide a forest fighter’s wife at his home in Gatung’ang’a, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.
Nderitu Kamunyu, a Mau Mau village leader and oath administrator, demonstrates how he helped hide a forest fighter’s wife at his home in Gatung’ang’a, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.
Nderitu Kamunyu, a Mau Mau village leader and oath administrator, demonstrates how he helped hide a forest fighter’s wife at his home in Gatung’ang’a, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.
Nderitu Kamunyu, a Mau Mau village leader and oath administrator, demonstrates how he helped hide a forest fighter’s wife at his home in Gatung’ang’a, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.
Mass grave, Githambo, Murang’a County, 2015.
Mass grave, Githambo, Murang’a County, 2015.
Unhistories - Kenya’s Mau Mau: Documents and Personalities
Unhistories - Kenya’s Mau Mau: Documents and Personalities
Unhistories - Kenya’s Mau Mau: Documents and Personalities

Geoffrey Nderitu

This is my home, this land was our father’s and he left it to us when he died. There is a mass grave here. The ground I walk on is over people’s graves, but I found this one and I am taking care of it for the sake of tomorrow and the years to come.

This row is filled with young men, Mau Mau soldiers. They died between 1952 and 1955. They were murdered by Europeans while fighting for this soil. They are buried in deep and wide holes. In one hole there could be up to 30 people buried, based on how fast the bodies were coming in.

Here is a skull. This is an arm bone, these are leg bones, the skull, the jaw. I take care of this a lot. I take care of their bones because I don’t want to lose them. These are the people who gave us freedom. The warriors of independence have been buried here, and banana trees planted over them. Let’s preserve them here in remembrance of our freedom fighters. They don’t disturb me, they are my friends. They are my brothers.

— Geoffrey Nderitu, Tetu, Gititu, Nyeri County, 2019

The portrait of himself that Dedan Kimathi sent to the British colonial army after learning that they did not possess a photograph of Kenya’s most-wanted Mau Mau leader, December, 1953.
The portrait of himself that Dedan Kimathi sent to the British colonial army after learning that they did not possess a photograph of Kenya’s most-wanted Mau Mau leader, December, 1953.

Dedan Kimathi Waciuri

Widely regarded as the military and spiritual leader of the anti colonial movement, Kimathi fought against the British in the 1950s. When the colonial administration declared the state of emergency, Kimathi took to the forests close to Mount Kenya. He is credited with creating formal military structures and convening a war council along with his fellow Field Marshals. Kimathi was charged with possession of illegal firearms and sentenced to hang. He was executed on February 18, 1957 at Kamiti Maximum Prison. After his execution, his body was buried in an unmarked grave and has not been found to this day. He is now a celebrated national hero.

Dedan Kimathi’s Trench, Kahigaini, Tetu, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.
Dedan Kimathi’s Trench, Kahigaini, Tetu, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.

The spot where Dedan Kimathi was shot in the leg and arrested by Home Guard Ndirangu Mau. It is believed that the blood that soaked into the soil created an infertile patch of land where no tea has grown since. Kahigaini, Tetu, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.

TNA, CO 1066/8. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/8. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/8. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/8. The National Archives, Kew, UK
TNA, CO 1066/8. The National Archives, Kew, UK.
Ian Henderson meets with Dedan Kimathi in hospital after being arrested, 21 October, 1956. Inscription on page: “The end of a long chase” 2000/146/1/46 (Badenoch album) British Empire & Commonwealth Collection. Copyright: The Bristol Museums Galleries & Archives, Bristol, UK.
Ian Henderson meets with Dedan Kimathi in hospital after being arrested, 21 October, 1956. Inscription on page: “The end of a long chase” 2000/146/1/46 (Badenoch album) British Empire & Commonwealth Collection. Copyright: The Bristol Museums Galleries & Archives, Bristol, UK.
Ian Henderson, CBE, GM & Bar, KPM (1927-2013) was a colonial police officer in Kenya. He is best known for his use of murders and brutal torture techniques against members of the Mau Mau movement, and for obsessively hunting down Dedan Kimathi. He was later deported to Bahrain where he was nicknamed “Butcher of Bahrain.

Ian Henderson, CBE, GM & Bar, KPM (1927-2013) was a colonial police officer in Kenya. He is best known for his use of murders and brutal torture techniques against members of the Mau Mau movement, and for obsessively hunting down Dedan Kimathi. He was later deported to Bahrain where he was nicknamed “Butcher of Bahrain.

Members of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch, demonstrate a struggle in the forest, Marimira Forest, Kangema, Murang’a County, 2019
Members of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch, demonstrate a struggle in the forest, Marimira Forest, Kangema, Murang’a County, 2019
Members of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch, demonstrate a struggle in the forest, Marimira Forest, Kangema, Murang’a County, 2019
Members of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch, demonstrate a struggle in the forest, Marimira Forest, Kangema, Murang’a County, 2019
Members of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch, demonstrate a struggle in the forest, Marimira Forest, Kangema, Murang’a County, 2019
Members of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch, demonstrate a struggle in the forest, Marimira Forest, Kangema, Murang’a County, 2019.
Inscription on back of print: “Exclusive Picture: Terrorist at Bay This picture, believed to be the first ever to be taken of a Mau Mau terrorist actually being shot, is exclusive to Associated Press. The picture was made on operations with the Kenya Regiment in the Mount Kenya area, April 14th, when this terrorist, one of a gang believed to number at least thirty, armed with a spear and a Simi, emerged from a thicket and was shot dead by the Kenya Regiment Corporal seen silhouett- ed in left foreground.” KNA, 967/6203ASS/964153. Kenya National Archives, Nairobi, Kenya.
Inscription on back of print: “Exclusive Picture: Terrorist at Bay. This picture, believed to be the first ever to be taken of a Mau Mau terrorist actually being shot, is exclusive to Associated Press. The picture was made on operations with the Kenya Regiment in the Mount Kenya area, April 14th, when this terrorist, one of a gang believed to number at least thirty, armed with a spear and a Simi, emerged from a thicket and was shot dead by the Kenya Regiment Corporal seen silhouett- ed in left foreground.” KNA, 967/6203ASS/964153. Kenya National Archives, Nairobi, Kenya.
Peter G. Kamau, Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch Chairman, Murang’a, 2019.
Peter G. Kamau, Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch Chairman, Murang’a, 2019.
Members of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch. From left to right: Joseph Gachina, John Mwangi, John K. Mwangi, Johanna Kabuchu, Julius Gilbert Kimari, Peter G. Kamau, (Chairman), Paul Mwangi Mwenja, Mwangi Wangai, Maina Njathi, Peter Irungu Njuguna, Wilfred K. Maina, David Maina Kaya, 2019.
Members of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Murang’a Branch. From left to right: Joseph Gachina, John Mwangi, John K. Mwangi, Johanna Kabuchu, Julius Gilbert Kimari, Peter G. Kamau, (Chairman), Paul Mwangi Mwenja, Mwangi Wangai, Maina Njathi, Peter Irungu Njuguna, Wilfred K. Maina, David Maina Kaya, 2019.
Johanna Kabūchū demonstrates how Mau Mau fighters would hide a panga underneath their trench coats, Thika, Kiambu County, Kenya, 2019.
Johanna Kabūchū demonstrates how Mau Mau fighters would hide a panga underneath their trench coats, Thika, Kiambu County, Kenya, 2019.
Johanna Kabūchū demonstrates how Mau Mau fighters would hide a panga underneath their trench coats, Thika, Kiambu County, Kenya, 2019.
General Bahati leads a forest battle demonstration, Nanyuki, Laikipia County, Kenya, 2015.
General Bahati leads a forest battle demonstration, Nanyuki, Laikipia County, Kenya, 2015.
General Bahati leads a forest battle demonstration, Nanyuki, Laikipia County, Kenya, 2015.
General Bahati leads a forest battle demonstration, Nanyuki, Laikipia County, Kenya, 2015.
John Ndegwa Ruita’s bullet wound, Mukurwe-ini, Nyeri County, 2019.
John Ndegwa Ruita’s bullet wound, Mukurwe-ini, Nyeri County, 2019.
The statue of Queen Victoria was beheaded and thrown into a bush in 2015, after standing in Jeevanjee Gardens for more than a century, Nairobi, Kenya, 2015.
The statue of Queen Victoria was beheaded and thrown into a bush in 2015, after standing in Jeevanjee Gardens for more than a century, Nairobi, Kenya, 2015.
Godfrey Muturi Kagiri wearing a “Shujaa wa Mau Mau” (Heroes of Mau Mau) cap that he received as part of his 2013 compensation from the British government, Karatina, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2019
Godfrey Muturi Kagiri wearing a “Shujaa wa Mau Mau” (Heroes of Mau Mau) cap that he received as part of his 2013 compensation from the British government, Karatina, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2019.
The funeral of Elijah Kinyua Ngang’a (aka General Bahati), National Chairman of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Shamata Ward, Nyandarua County, 5 March, 2021. Photo by his daughter Nancy W. Kinyua.
The funeral of Elijah Kinyua Ngang’a (aka General Bahati), National Chairman of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Shamata Ward, Nyandarua County, 5 March, 2021. Photo by his daughter Nancy W. Kinyua.
Elijah Kinyua Ngang’a, aka General Bahati (1933-2021), National Chairman of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Karatina, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.
Elijah Kinyua Ngang’a, aka General Bahati (1933-2021), National Chairman of the Mau Mau War Veterans Association, Karatina, Nyeri County, Kenya, 2015.
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