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Train Traditional Birth Attendants, Don’t Ban Them

Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) remain the main providers of delivery services, especially in rural and remote areas. Rather than banning them, governments should support them to reduce maternal and child mortality, and ensure that they get adequate training.

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Throughout African history, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have provided maternity care for women despite having no formal training.

Poverty, cultural practices, and a shortage of primary healthcare services are forcing women to seek the help of untrained traditional birth attendants, despite the serious risks involved.

Last year Kenya recorded a maternal death rate of about 362 per 100,000 live births and an under-five death rate of 52 per 1,000 live births, while in Tanzania, one in every 126 women die due to maternity complications. The story is the same in Uganda and Ghana as well. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO)’s figures for 2016 on maternal mortality, 560 women die per 100,000 births in Nigeria.

Despite these shocking figures, women, even learned ones, are still flocking to unskilled birth attendants’ homes to give birth, putting their lives at risk. Why is this so? Is it is because governments are failing them?

For some women, traditions prevent them from attending hospital. For others, long distances to medical facilities prevent them from reaching a health facility in time to give birth. Some are put off by health workers’ attitudes.

TBAs can provide them with all the care they need, both during and after pregnancy and childbirth, and there is no doubt they are a much-needed resource.

In 2013, the Kenyan government introduced free maternal healthcare. The goal was to encourage more women to give birth in health facilities. However, according to data from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) released this year, more women are still flocking to TBAs.

It is evident that pregnant women are not satisfied with the quality of care they are given at the hospitals. With the high number of women taking advantage of the free services, combined with the few health care workers to attend to them, some women are giving birth on their own even when they are in hospitals.

In 2013, Kenya had one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world: 488 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, according to the Ministry of Health.

In 2013, the Kenyan government introduced free maternal healthcare. The goal was to encourage more women to give birth in health facilities. However, according to data from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) released this year, more women are still flocking to TBAs.

According to KNBS data for 2015/2016, the findings reveal that three out of ten children were delivered at home in 2018 in Kenya; this is an estimated 31.3 per cent improvement from 53.9 per cent recorded in 2005/06.

The survey showed that in rural areas the proportion of children born at home was 40.7 per cent compared to 13.3 per cent in urban areas.

Childbirth statistics in Kenya
“The county with the lowest proportion of children born at home was Kirinyaga, at 3.8 per cent, while Wajir, Mandera, Samburu and Marsabit had over 70 per cent of children born at home. Kirinyaga, Nyeri and Kisii counties recorded over 90 per cent of children born in a health facility,” KNBS stated.

The proportion of children delivered with the assistance of a traditional birth attendant in rural areas was 25.6 per cent compared to 7.8 per cent in urban areas. Wajir, Mandera and Samburu had over 60 per cent of the births assisted by a traditional birth attendant. Turkana County had the highest proportion of self-assisted births, at 34.5 per cent.

The low hospital births among pastoral communities may be partly linked to inadequate health facilities and personnel in the regions they live in. Families in pastoral counties also tend to be polygamous, which puts a strain on resources such as healthcare.

Nairobi, Kisii, Kiambu, Kirinyaga and Nyeri counties top in childbirths in hospitals, an indication of the success of the safety campaigns. These five counties are the only counties that recorded over 74 per cent of children born in hospitals.

Statistics further show that more deliveries are now handled by trained medical personnel, which is a plus in attaining safer childbirths. However, women in rural areas still prefer to be attended by TBAs, friends, and relatives during delivery.

According to WHO, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa, where most births in rural areas are conducted by TBAs, rates of births assisted by a medically trained attendant have shown impressive increases over the past 15 to 20 years, Current data indicate that 59 per cent of births in the developing world are assisted by a medically trained professional.

Nairobi, Kisii, Kiambu, Kirinyaga and Nyeri counties top in childbirths in hospitals, an indication of the success of the safety campaigns. These five counties are the only counties that recorded over 74 per cent of children born in hospitals.

Uganda banned TBAs) in 2010 but they have continued to practise. Eighty per cent of rural women prefer TBAs to skilled attendants, according to officials at the Ministry of Health; 10 per cent of them delivered with the assistance of TBAs.

With TBAs playing such an important role in maternal and newborn healthcare, especially in rural areas, should governments abolish them completely or look for ways of incorporating them into the system as referral agents to hospitals?

One midwife’s experience

The Telegraph, through an informal survey in Kisumu’s Nyalenda Estate in Kenya, established that some mothers delivering in hospitals still relied on traditional birth companions during pregnancy and after giving birth.

Pictures of newborn babies adorn the walls of Margret Owino’s house. They are a treasured decor in the improvised maternity ward in her two-roomed corrugated iron-walled house. Hundreds of women have trekked the dusty and curvy road to Ms Owino’s Kisumu home, judging from the many pictures.

It is at 6 am when we got to her house. Dressed in a blue nylon apron, she is busy attending to a pregnant woman. In a busy month, she delivers over 60 children, according to her well-kept records.

Her small house acts as a labour and delivery room. She is among traditional midwives who assist women at childbirth, mostly in areas that lack infrastructure and trained health personnel.

Even though there are several health facilities in the area, some pregnant women prefer traditional birth attendants. They say they are more comfortable with them than obstetricians and trained midwives.

Ms Owino learned the midwife’s skills at a tender age. When she was 15 her late grandmother, who was a midwife, placed herbs in her right hand and some coins in the left — the traditional way of transferring the skills to her. This has since been her job. She is among Kenya’s 35 registered traditional birth attendants who work with hospitals to ensure safe deliveries.

She has had women who are bleeding profusely brought to her in the middle of the night. She does not attend to them but sends them immediately to the nearby hospital. Some clinics contact her to attend to mothers with breech births and at times they are brought to her “clinic”.

She also refers HIV-positive women to the hospital, but says she knows not all women disclose their status to her. She says it is a constant risk.

Her maternity services are similar to those in health facilities. She records clients’ details in a book and weighs infants on a weighing machine given to her as a token.

One of her clients said that harassment in public hospitals is one of the reasons they still troop to traditional birth attendants’ clinics.

Even though there are several health facilities in the area, some pregnant women prefer traditional birth attendants. They say they are more comfortable with them than obstetricians and trained midwives.

‘‘The midwives harass us, calling us names while we are often left in the hands of inexperienced trainees. The midwife can detect when a woman has the strength to push the baby or not, or if the baby is in the right position,” she says.

She says community midwives pamper and take care of women during and after delivery. She says this helps them give birth with dignity. That is why a lot of women come back to her when they are having another baby

Initially, the government was threatening the TBAs while others were being harassed and their tools were being confiscated. However, this has since changed; they are now being registered and undergo training to ensure safe deliveries.

The Ugandan government has also lifted the ban on TBAs and the focus now is training them. As a result, there has been a shift towards skilled birth attendants capable of averting and managing childbirth complications.

Ms Owino only attends to women who know their HIV status. She ensures that HIV positive clients have antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs given by a doctor, which she gives to the child immediately after tying the umbilical cord.

Benefits of supporting and training TBAs

Rather than educate against the use of TBAs, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) believes that working with them is the best solution. It did a a study on the benefits of supporting and training TBAs across the world. The study was done in the Upper East Region in Ghana, and tracked antenatal visits and deliveries conducted by trained TBAs from 1990 to 1993.

“Antenatal visits increased from 20,000 to 180,000. Deliveries reported by TBAs increased from less than 10,000 to 50,000. Nationally, the percentage of TBA deliveries as a percentage of supervised deliveries increased from 16.4 percent to 22.2 percent between 1992 and 1993. Policymakers and program managers state that TBAs have contributed to: improve prenatal care, increase contraceptive acceptance rate, and decrease neonatal tetanus admissions”.

“The role of traditional birth attendants in the provision of healthcare in resource-poor countries is still important because of the current inadequacy of human resources for health. In developing countries for years to come, TBAs will remain the main providers of child deliveries in rural areas,” it states.

Dr Elizabeth Ogaja, a health analyst, says that midwives are an integral part of the healthcare system, adding that the reduction of maternal and newborn mortality in developing countries requires rigorous efforts that involve governments and non-governmental organisations in identifying TBAs who are known by the community to be experts.

“Recruitment and training of TBAs using adult learning techniques is important. The programmes should focus on basic primary healthcare, especially on symptoms of risky cases that need to be referred to formal health services and on hygiene to prevent mother and child from infections,” she says.

“Creation of dialogue, trustworthiness, patient, tolerance, willingness to collaborate, transparent and familiarity during training are key when working with TBAs as partners in health care and when sharing experiences,” says Dr Ogaja.

Training, she says, should be followed up by frequent meetings to share feedback and problems TBAs experience.

“We have realised that they are very important. Mothers trust them and we want to integrate them as much as we can. We advise that they bring pregnant mothers to hospitals so that we can take it from there,” she says.

Dr Lawrence Koteng’, the Homa Bay health executive, acknowledges the role played by traditional midwives but encourages expectant women to deliver in health facilities.

He says the county health department is training community health workers to discourage unsafe home deliveries.

“We do not support expectant women to deliver at home or anywhere except at health facilities where there are experts who can help whenever there is a complication,” says Dr Koteng’.

However, Allan Mayi, the deputy project director at Elizabeth Glaser Paediatric Aids Foundation, says the birth attendants should not attend to expectant mothers because they lack the skills needed to offer safe deliveries.

The organisation encourages women to deliver in hospitals and even offers incentives to birth attendants to take them to health facilities.

“Most mother-to-child HIV transmissions are recorded at midwives’ homes,” says Mr Mayi.

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Angela is a prolific and award-winning health writer who has written for the Daily Nation and is currently in a US-sponsored exchange program in Washington DC.

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Punitive Government Policies Jeopardise Kenya’s Food Security

The government is criminalising Kenyan farmers and leaving the country’s food security at the mercy of multinational corporations.

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Punitive Government Policies Jeopardise Kenya’s Food Security
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By 2021 your typical Kenyan smallholder farmer was producing 75 per cent of the foods consumed in the country. Yet the draconian laws imposed on the agriculture sector by the government have been facilitating their exploitation by private sector actors including multinational corporations. This is in total contradiction with President Uhuru Kenyatta’s move to include food security in his Big Four Agenda and begs the question of how the country can achieve food security when farmers are discouraged from producing food by these punitive laws.

Recently, there was an uproar on social media regarding the Livestock Bill 2021. The point of contention in the yet to be gazetted Bill is a clause that bars Kenyan farmers from keeping bees for commercial purposes unless they are registered under the Apiary Act. The government, through the Permanent Secretary for Livestock Mr Harry Kimutai, tried to justify this by saying that the aim of registering beekeepers is to commercialise beekeeping instead of it being a traditional practice.

Local pastoralist, agrarian and forest-dwelling communities have practiced beekeeping since time immemorial and it has been part of the subsistence economy of smallholder farmers who pass on this rich knowledge and expertise from generation to generation.

Bee-reaucracy

In its current form, the Livestock Bill 2021 will drive smallholder beekeepers out of honey production and pave the way for multinational corporations under the guise of regulating the sector. It is no different from the Agricultural Sector Transformation and Growth Strategy 2019-2029 that seeks to move farmers out of farming into “more productive jobs”, opening the door for their exploitation and impoverishment by agro-capitalists.

In a recent media interview, Mr Kimutai said that Kenyan honey is contaminated with pesticide residues. But if the government is indeed concerned about improving honey production, it should start by banning the use of toxic pesticides that are detrimental to bees and contaminate the quality of honey. Pesticides such as Deltamethrin have been found to be toxic to bees yet they are still used in Kenya.

Local pastoralist, agrarian and forest-dwelling communities have practiced beekeeping since time immemorial.

Section 93 subsection(1) of the Bill bars the importation, manufacturing, compounding, mixing or selling of any animal foodstuff other than a product that the authority may by order declare to be an approved animal product. This offence attracts a fine of KSh500,000 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months, or both.

Smallholder livestock farmers in Kenya have been growing “napier grass” to feed their cows and for sale to other farmers. Do these new regulations mean that they shall be committing an offence by growing their own feed and selling it within their localities?

Another punitive regulation is the Crops (Irish Potato) Regulations 2019, that requires transporters, traders and dealers to be registered with their counties, failure to which they face up to KSh5 million in fines, three years imprisonment, or both. This regulation also punishes an unregistered farmer with a one-year imprisonment or KSh500,000 or both, for growing a scheduled crop. It is no coincidence that capitalist-funded organisations like Alliance for a Green Revolution (AGRA) applaud the Irish Potato regulations as a new dawn for Kenyan farmers.

Bee-reaucracyThrough the Seed and Plant Varieties Act 2012, the government once again fails to protect farmers from capitalist exploitation. Part 1 of the Act defines selling as including barter, exchange and offering or exposing for a product for sale, taking away a farmer’s right to sell, share and exchange seed, a right that is recognised in the constitution.

Part 2 section 3 of the Act prohibits the sale of uncertified seed. The good old practice of selling and sharing seeds is further criminalised in section 7(5) which requires only seed appearing in the Variety Index or the National Variety List to be sold. This limits farmers from selling their varieties which they have been sharing, exchanging and selling for generations. Moreover, this automatically means that farmers selling their seed varieties are committing an offence if such varieties are not listed in the index.

Further, section 18 part 4 of this act allows for the discovery of a plant variety whether growing in the wild or occurring as a genetic variant, whether artificially induced or not. This section allows for the discovery of farmers’ indigenous seeds by multinational corporations keen to patent them for profit.

It is no coincidence that capitalist-funded organisations like Alliance for a Green Revolution (AGRA) applaud the Irish Potato regulations as a new dawn for Kenyan farmers.

The implication here is that since farmers’ seed varieties are not registered or owned by anyone, anybody can obtain the seeds of any crop variety, apply for their registration and claim their “discovery”. Farmers who have been conserving and reusing the “discovered” seeds will then lose the right to continue doing so and they will be required to pay royalties to the new “owners” of these seeds.

This act contravenes certain provisions of the constitution, in particular Article 11 (3) (b) of the Kenya Constitution 2010 which states that parliament shall enact legislation to recognise and protect the ownership of indigenous seeds and plant varieties, their genetic and diverse characteristics and their use by the communities of Kenya.

Foreign laws

The parliament has forfeited its obligation to enact laws that protect and enhance our intellectual property rights  over the indigenous knowledge of the biodiversity and the genetic resources of Kenyan communities  as mandated by Article 69 (1) (a) of the Kenyan constitution. It has allowed external actors to pirate local resources and trample indigenous rights.

Patenting indigenous seeds, barring farmers from keeping bees, and regulating the growing and selling of animal feed and potatoes is theft of the commons. The government is in cahoots with large corporations determined to kill the smallholder farmers’ sources of livelihood while singing about food security being part of the Big Four Agenda.

Foreign lawWhat sense does it make to frustrate smallholder farmers who grow 75 per cent of our food to serve the interests of imperialist multinational corporations keen on holding our farmers at ransom through abhorrent fines?

Patenting indigenous seeds, barring farmers from keeping bees, and regulating the growing and selling of animal feed and potatoes is theft of the commons.

It is time to reclaim and protect the commons that our communities have for a very long time thrived on. In her book Reclaiming the commons Dr Vandana Shiva points out that indigenous communities, including farmers, co-create and co-evolve biodiversity with nature, practises that have seen them overcome ecological challenges for generations. Our policies, plans and laws need to protect these practices for posterity.

Our parliamentarians should endeavour to defend our biodiversity, indigenous cultures and national systems – reclaiming the commons. We need policies that will allow farmers to produce food using indigenous seeds that are readily available and that they can be share amongst themselves. We need policies that will allow farmers to produce safer and more healthy food in an environmentally safe way, not punitive policies designed to eliminate farmers and have our food system controlled by corporations out to make profits at the expense of our health and our environment.

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Tech Disruption in the Agricultural Sector

The future of farming in Kenya counties, whether in knowledge sharing, collaborations, funding, or market access primarily lies in the farmer’s abilities to harness the respective strengths of the available and emerging Disruptive Agricultural Technologies. As the tech-platforms become cheaper, more available and affordable farmers yield and fortunes will likely inch upwards.

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Tech Disruption in the Agricultural Sector
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Disruptive technologies in agriculture (DATs) have been in Kenya since the early 1900s and can simply be defined as the digital and technical innovations that enable farmers and agri-firms to increase their productivity, efficiency, and competitive edge.

These platforms essentially help local farmers make more precise decisions about resource use through accurate, timely, and location-specific price, weather predictions. The agronomic data and information that they provide in Kenya is becoming increasingly important in the context of climate change. Besides, leveling the playing field, it can make small-scale or local marginalized farmers in Kenya to be more competitive.

Sophisticated off-line digital agri-tech can provide opportunities even in poorly-connected rural contexts, or with marginalized groups who have lower access to information and markets. In short, Disruptive Agricultural Technologies (DATs) are overturning the sector status quo.

Tech Disruption in the Agricultural Sector

Some of the key disruptive technologies in agriculture (DAT’s) include Waterwatch Cooperative in Kenya (Real-time alert system), Tulaa and Farmshine (Digital platform for finding buyers and linking buyers and sellers).

There is also Agri-wallet (platform for input credit/e-wallets/insurance products), dutch-based Agrocares operating in Kenya and Ujuzi Kilimo (portable soil testers, satellite images, remote sensing) as well as SunCulture (solar-powered irrigation pumps)

These platforms have helped to facilitate access to local markets in counties such as Makueni and West Pokot, improve nutritional outcomes, and enhance resilience to climate change. Disruptive agricultural technologies are designed to help stakeholders by reducing the costs of linking various actors of the agri-food system both within and across countries through faster provision, processing, and analyzing of large amounts of data.

The Disruptive Agricultural Technologies Landscape 

Over 75% of Disruptive Agricultural Technologies are digital. The remaining 25% of non-digital are either focused on energy (solar), or producers/suppliers of bio-products for agriculture.

Approximately 32% of the Disruptive Agricultural Technologies aim to enhance agricultural productivity, 26% are working to improve market linkages, 23% are engaged in data analytics, and another 15% are working on financial inclusion.

According to a 2019 World Bank report, Kenya has become a leading agri-tech hub with nearly 60 scalable Disruptive Agricultural Technologies (DATs) operational in the country, followed by South Africa and Nigeria. Kenya is said to have the third largest technology incubation and acceleration hub in the region. Examples of those technologies in Kenya include: Data-connected devices which use ICT to collect, store, and analyze data. This includes GPS, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. The Africa’s Regional Data Cube hosted in Nairobi,Kenya is a tool that helps various countries address issues related to agriculture, water, and sanitation. 

The use of robotics and automation in farming in Kenya has gained widespread acceptance. For instance, drones are used to monitor and improve the efficiency of agricultural operations and its usage is governed by the Civil Aviation Act.

Majority of farmers in Kenya are smallholder farmers and having access to Disruptive agricultural technologies helps even the competition with medium and large scale farmers as tools are created for both low and high connectivity areas.

Over 83 percent of Disruptive agricultural technologies are e-marketplaces that do not require high connectivity. Example is Twiga Foods whose digital platform connects retailers and food manufacturers, delivering a streamlined and efficient supply chain.

Kenya’s financial sector is characterized by a robust mobile money ecosystem (MPESA) with over 70 percent of the population using mobile money regularly which increases its potential for farming for smallholder farmers.

Despite that one of the biggest challenges facing the agriculture sector in Kenya is access to finance. This is largely due to the high risk of loaning to small holder farmers. FinTech apps use alternative data and machine learning to improve the credit scoring of smallholder farmers.

These apps help minimize the gap between the demand for credit and the supply of financing for smallholder farmers. Kenya is a hotspot for agricultural apps. There are numerous organizations working on developing digital solutions that combine precision farming with remote sensing data.

Connectivity and Adoption of DATSs

A significant number of the existing digital tools and technologies can be utilized in areas with low network to improve the productivity of the agriculture sector. Despite the increasing number of mobile phone users in Kenya, the penetration rate among smallholder farmers remains relatively low.

It may be difficult for many of these smallholder farmers to adopt Disruptive agricultural technologies (DATs) due to the high costs, complexity and capabilities required. Meanwhile for large scale farmers, the DATs highly boost their productivity, especially if they have already developed the capabilities in-house to accelerate adoption of these tech platforms. Therefore, from the onset, we need to understand who uses the technology and the implications of this.

Kenya has a well-established start-up ecosystem, made up of mostly young, adaptive and brilliant innovators who are leveraging low-cost digital platforms. This is coupled with funding from international donors and incubation activities address agricultural value-chain issues. There is a mix of actors for Disruptive agricultural technologies depending on the categorization of the technology.

This ranges from DATS that support creation, facilitate adoption and oversee diffusion of innovation.

These actors need strong and cohesive ties, both between, the regulatory bodies, farmers, county leaders, financiers, state agencies, and fellow developers. The nature of the collaborations could be cohesive and cooperative, where all the local actors have shared goals, to fragmented, where not all actors are on board, causing resistance and slowing down the process.

Despite a myriad challenges these radical and innovative (DATs) are revolutionizing and changing the farming landscape in the counties and working with the Ministry of Agriculture using technologies to deliver agricultural services more efficiently and accountable.

The future of farming in Kenya counties whether in knowledge sharing, collaborations, funding, or market access primarily lies in the farmer’s abilities to harness the respective strengths of the available and emerging Disruptive Agricultural Technologies. As the tech-platforms become cheaper, more available and affordable farmers yield and fortunes will likely inch upwards.

This article is part of The Elephant Food Edition Series done in collaboration with Route to Food Initiative (RTFI). Views expressed in the article are not necessarily those of the RTFI.

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Revealed: Majority of US Voters Support Patent Waiver on COVID-19 Vaccines

Shock poll reveals majority support for Joe Biden to suspend TRIPS and support global vaccination.

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A new poll finds that 60% of US voters want President Joe Biden to endorse the motion by more than 100 lower- and middle-income countries to temporarily waive patent protections on Covid-19 vaccines at the World Trade Organization. Only 28% disagreed.

The survey, carried out by Data for Progress and the Progressive International, shows a super majority of 72% registered Democrats want Biden to temporarily waive patent barriers to speed vaccine roll out and reduce costs for developing nations. Even registered Republicans support the action by margin of 50% in favor to 36% opposed.

The new polling shows that “there is a popular mandate from the US American people to put human life and economic recovery ahead of corporate profits and a broken intellectual property system,” said David Adler, the general coordinator of the Progressive International. Burcu Kilic, research director of the access to medicines program at Public Citizen and member of Progressive International’s Council, called on Biden to “listen to Americans who put him in power” and “do the right thing.”

Revealed: Majority of US Voters Support Patent Waiver on COVID-19 VaccinesDue to WTO intellectual property rules, countries are barred from producing the current leading approved vaccines, including US-produced Moderna, Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson. In October of 2020, South Africa and India presented the WTO with a proposal to temporarily waive these rules for the duration of the pandemic so that vaccines can be manufactured across different countries, increasing their availability, reducing their cost and ensuring that they are delivered to everyone on earth as quickly as possible.

In the absence of the waiver, the current manufacturing and distribution rates are unlikely to stem the pandemic’s momentum, especially as new variants, which are more infectious and seem to evade the acquired immunity from prior infection or from the current vaccines, continue to emerge. The US under President Trump joined other richer nations to block them.

The shock poll reveals a level of public support for intellectual property waivers that will likely add to growing congressional pressure on Biden to join those pushing to save lives through a global vaccination drive. Congresswoman Jan Schakowsky is working on a letter to the president to which Schakowsky says more than 60 lawmakers have added their signature, including House Speaker Nancy Pelosi.

Senator Bernie Sanders, Chair of the Senate Budget Committee, responded to the poll saying the US should be “leading the global effort to end the coronavirus pandemic.” According to Sanders, “a temporary WTO waiver, which would enable the transfer of vaccine technologies to poorer countries, is a good way to do that.”

Responding to the new poll, Representative Ilhan Omar called on Biden to “support a waiver to boost the production of vaccines, treatment and tests worldwide,” arguing that it was “not just an issue of basic morality, but of public health.”

Adler argues, “US Americans know rigged rules to prop up big pharma’s profits are not in their interest. The longer the virus has to spread, the more it can mutate and become vaccine-resistant. Covid-19 anywhere is a threat to public health and economic wellbeing everywhere. If intellectual property restrictions are not lifted, the pandemic will go on for longer, killing more people and damaging more livelihoods.”

The threat to the Global South from vaccine apartheid is a “death sentence for millions around the world—and it is because giant pharmaceutical corporations would rather maximize profit than provide vaccines to people who need it,” according to Omar.

Sanders agrees, saying “the bottom line is, the faster we help vaccinate the global population, the safer we will all be. That should be our number one priority, not maximizing the profits of pharmaceutical companies and their shareholders.”

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